Seismic imaging is the inverse of the seismic process. It is the most important and crucial step in recovering the geology from the seismic response. In order to be successful in the inversion process, a fair knowledge of how the response was generated is required.
The course will deals with the wave propagation theory underlying the seismic reflection method (acoustic waves in fluids, elastodynamic waves in solids, Kirchhoff and Rayleigh integrals, reflection, diffraction, etc.), the inverse problem in seismic imaging methods (wave field decomposition, inverse wave field extrapolation, imaging principle, etc.) as well as velocity related to imaging procedure also will be discussed in brief.
Upon completion of this course, participants will be able:
- To understand the theoretical and practical aspects of seismic wave propagation and imaging algorithm.
- To discuss the diffraction theory, Huygens Principles and migration workflow.
- To explore different issues and challenges in seismic data processing and imaging.
Prof. Dr. Deva Prasad Ghosh
, obtained BSc. in Geology and Physics, MSc. in Geophysics both from Banaras Hindu University India and Ph.D. (1970) from Delft University, the Netherlands. He worked at Banaras Hindu University as Associate Professor in Geophysics for about 8 years. He worked in Shell from 1974-1999 holding various technological and management positions.
Prof Deva joined PETRONAS in 2000 and was responsible for research, development, and application of geophysical technology worldwide. In 2011, he joined Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) as a Professor in Geophysics and currently responsible as Head of Center of Excellence in Subsurface Seismic Imaging & Hydrocarbon Prediction (CSI). He is passionate about geophysics, developing local staff, and transfer of technology. His field of interest is in Seismic Imaging, Seismic Attributes and Hydrocarbon prediction. He is a member of AAPG, SPE, EAGE and SEG, and a former editor of EAGE. He was SEG-Shell Distinguished Lecturer for SE Asia in 2010 and EAGE Lecturer 2012.
Dr. Abdul Halim Abdul Latiff,
is currently the MSc Programme Manager and a lecturer with Department of Geosciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Malaysia. He obtained Master of Science in Petroleum Geoscience from UTP in 2014 and was awarded Master of Engineering in Electrical & Electronic from Imperial College London in 2008. Prior to join UTP, he had a short stint with CGG as a geophysicist in between April 2009 to March 2012. His research interests are in earthquake seismology, earth’s deep structure, seismic acquisition design and optimization algorithms as well as new solutions for hydrocarbon prediction in the complex geological region through seismic data processing, imaging and interpretation. He is currently member of Board of Geologists, Board of Engineers, SEG, EAGE and GSM.
The three-day course will cover the following aspects (case studies may be included in some topics):
The process leads to a valid structure defined by some key seismic properties like, Vp, Vs, ρ
and absorption. These are then the ingredients of a geological-velocity structure model with the help of a seismic simulation. The course will define the key elements of a seismic experiment, either through modeling or a real seismic data acquisition in the field offshore or onshore. The seismic wave created by detonation then starts propagating as a down going wave which follows the laws of wave propagation and transmits and gets reflected from the interfaces. The resulting up going wave contains information about the subsurface. Following Huygens’ principle we should be concerned with this up going wave caused. There are two types of waves that will be discussed are body waves (e.g. P-wave and S-wave) and surface waves (e.g. Rayleigh and Love wave)
- Wave Theory and Its Elastic Properties
All imaging algorithm are best, therefore it is customary to apply some approximations. A
common approximation is to use ray theory, which is the high frequency limit of the wave
theory. On the other hand, depth imaging with Kirchhoff Migration is the most robust in defining structures. Further simplification to the wave theory is by using straight or bending ray and the process can be solved in time domain (PSTM) without explicit model driven ray-tracing. All classification of imaging theory and its application will be discussed in details.
- Seismic Imaging Classification
Diffraction is a fundamental concept in light or wave propagation and constitutes the heart of an imaging process. As a matter of fact all integral Kirchhoff type of summation migration uses the diffraction response. This is hyperbolic for a constant velocity media which known as a Curve of Maximum convexity. Diffractions cannot be explained by ray theory or Snell’s law and we have to use Kirchhoff’s Wave Theory of retarded potential to explain the phenomena.
- Seismic Diffraction Theory
The basic principles of imaging are well documented in Huygens’ wave front concept developed as early as the 17th century. It simply states that every point on the wave front is the source of the “secondary” wave front as we conveniently chose while computing the seismic response. Further the application to seismic we will address is that reflectors are the envelope of these secondary wave front.
- Seismic Migration Principle and Workflow
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